What is the chemical structure of soap and detergent molecules?

What is the chemical structure of soap and detergent molecules?
A. Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
B. Hydrophilic head and hydrophilic tail
C. Hydrophobic head and hydrophobic tail
D. Hydrophilic tail and hydrophobic head

Correct Option: Answer is A
A. Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
Both soaps and detergent molecules share this characteristic structure. They are amphiphilic, meaning they have both polar and non-polar regions. Here’s how it breaks down:
Hydrophilic head: This end of the molecule is polar and water-soluble. It typically contains a charged group like a carboxylate (-COO-) or sulfonate (-SO3-) in soaps and sulfate (-OSO3-) in detergents. These groups interact with water molecules through hydrogen bonding.
Hydrophobic tail: This end of the molecule is non-polar and water-insoluble. It consists of a long hydrocarbon chain, typically 12-18 carbon atoms long. These chains do not form hydrogen bonds with water and hence repel it.

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