What is eutrophication?

What is eutrophication?
A. The release of harmful chemicals into water bodies
B. The excessive growth of algae due to nutrient enrichment
C. The presence of heavy metals in water
D. The formation of oil slicks on water surfaces

Correct Option: Answer is B

The correct answer is:
B. The excessive growth of algae due to nutrient enrichment
Here’s why:
• The release of harmful chemicals into water bodies: While this can be a problem, it doesn’t specifically describe eutrophication. Chemicals other than nutrients can be harmful, and not all chemical releases lead to excessive algae growth.
• The presence of heavy metals in water: Similar to harmful chemicals, this issue isn’t directly related to eutrophication. Heavy metals can come from different sources and have separate ecological impacts.
• The formation of oil slicks on water surfaces: Oil slicks typically result from oil spills and affect different aspects of the water ecosystem than eutrophication.
Eutrophication specifically refers to an environmental problem where a water body, like a lake or river, becomes enriched with excess nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients, often originating from fertilizers, agricultural runoff, or sewage, stimulate the rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants. This excessive growth can have detrimental consequences for the ecosystem, including:
• Depletion of oxygen: As the algae die and decompose, they consume oxygen in the water, leading to hypoxia or anoxia, which can suffocate fish and other aquatic organisms.
• Reduced biodiversity: The dominance of algae can crowd out other plant and animal species, leading to a less diverse ecosystem.
• Harmful algal blooms: In some cases, the excessive algae growth can lead to blooms of toxic species, creating health risks for humans and animals.

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