1. (a)(i) Sketch a graphical representation of Charles’ law.
(ii) Calculate the volume of oxygen that would be required for the complete combustion of 2.5 moles of ethanol at s.t.p. [molar volume at s.t.p. = 22.4 dm
(b)(i) State the collision theory of reaction rates.
(ii) Using the collision theory, explain briefly how temperature can affect the rate of a chemical reaction.
(c)(i) Define esterification.
(ii) Give two uses of alkanoates.
(iii) Give the products of the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl ethanoate.
(d) A tin coated plate and a galvanized plate were exposed for the same length of time.
(i) Which of the two plates corrodes faster
(ii) Explain briefly your answer in 2(d)(i)
2. (a)(i) Draw the structure of the sixth member of the alkenes.
(ii) Calculate the relative molecular mass of the sixth member of the alkene.
(iii) State one difference between cracking and reforming in the petroleum industry. [H = 1, C = 12]
(b)(i) Define the term enthalpy of neutralization.
(ii) Describe briefly how the enthalpy of neutralization of the reaction of dilute hydrochloric acid and aqueous potassium hydroxide could be determined.
(c) An electrochemical cell is constructed with copper and silver electrodes.
(i) State which of the electrodes will be the: 1. anode; II. cathode.
(ii) Give the reason for your answer in 3(c)(i).
(iii) State the type of reaction occurring at each electrode.
(iv) Write a balanced equation for the overall cell reaction.
(d)(i) Name the compound formed when iron is exposed to moist air for a long time.
(ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in 3(d)(i).
(iii) Name one ore of iron.
3. (a)(i) Draw and label a diagram for the laboratory preparation of a dry sample of sulphur(IV)oxide.
(ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in (a)(i).
(iii) State the precaution that must be taken in the preparation of the gas stated in (a)(i).
(iv) Give a reason why the precaution stated in (a)(ii) must be taken.
(b)(i) State Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
(ii) The volume of a sample of methane collected over-water at a temperature of 12°C and a pressure of 700 mmHg was 30cm3
. Calculate the volume of the dry gas at s.t.p. [Saturated vapour pressure of water at 12°C is 10 mmHg]
(c)(i) Write an equation for the reaction between chlorine and water.
(ii) Why does litmus paper turn red when put in the resulting solution in (c)(i)?
(d)(i) State the trend in the boiling points of chlorine, bromine and iodine.
(ii) Explain briefly why water has a higher boiling point than ammonia.
4. (a)(i) State two industrial uses of hdrogen.
(ii) Consider the equation below.
1. State the type of hardness of water being removed as shown by the above equation.
2. Give two disadvantages of hardness of water.
(b)(i) In the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis, graphite electrodes are used. State the disadvantages of using this type of electrode.
(ii) Calcuim oxide reacts with water to form slaked line: I. Write a balanced equation for this reaction; II. State one use of slaked line.
(c)(i) What is meant by saponification?
(ii) List the raw materials needed for the manufacture of soap.
(iii) Name the main by-product obtained from the manufacture of soap.
(d) With the aid of chemical equations explain briefly how iron is extracted in the blast furnace using iron ore, coke and limestone as raw materials at the:
(i) bottom of the furnace; (ii) middle of the furnace (iii) top of the furnace.
5. (a) (i) Define the term fermentation
(ii) Name the catalyst that can be used for this process
(b) Name two factors which determine the choice of an indicator for an acid-base titration
(c) Consider the following reaction equation: Fe + H\(_2\)SO\(_4\) \(\to\) FeSO\(_4\) + H\(_2\). Calculate the mass of unreacted iron when 5.0g of iron reacts with 10cm\(^3\) of 1.0 moldm\(^3\) H\(_2\)SO\(_4\), [Fe = 56.0]
(d) Name one:
(i) Heavy chemical used in electrolytic cells
(ii) Fine chemical used in textile industries
(e) Explain briefly how a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction.
(f) (i) Write the chemical formula for the product formed when ethanoic acid reacts with ammonia
(ii) Give the name of the product formed in (f)(i)
(g) List three properties of aluminum that makes it suitable for the manufacture of drinks cans
(h) State two industrial uses of alkylalkanoates
(i) Name two steps involved in the crystallization of a salt from its solution
(j) List two effects of global warming