How to Solve Grammatical Names and Functions in WAEC & NECO

How to Solve Grammatical Names and Functions in WAEC & NECO

In this article, we are going to learn How to Solve Grammatical Names and Functions in WAEC & NECO in English Languages questions, specifically on Noun Clause and Phrase.

First of all, we need to understand difference between CLAUSE and PHRASE.

The easiest way to identify whether a group of words is a phrase or a clause is to look for both a subject and a verb. If you can find both, then it is a clause. If you can only find either subject or the other, then it is definitely a phrase

CLAUSE

A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, example of clause:

  • The Train goes to Stanford Bridge Stadium ==> “Train” is the Subject, “Goes” is the Verb
  • My Uncle live in London ==> “Uncle” is the Subject, “Live” is the verb
  • Whose Father won jackpot ==> “Father” is the Subject, “Won” is the verb
  • The last single from Davido succeeded commercially ==> “Davido” is the Subject, “Succeeded” is the verb

However, clause might be Main (independent) Clause or Subordinate (Dependent) Clause,

PHRASE

A phrase is a group of words, but it doesn’t contain a subject and a verb, example of phrase:

  • The Train to Stanford Bridge Stadium
  • My Uncle in London
  • The last single from Davido

 

WHAT IS A GRAMMATICAL NAME & FUNCTION?

Grammatical name is the name given to a word or group of words depending on its function and structure in a given clause or sentence OR Grammatical name is the name given to a word, phrase or clause depending on its function in a given clause or sentence.

Grammatical function is the syntactic role played by a word, or clause/phrase in the context of a given clause or sentence. Also, In the English Language, the grammatical function of a word, clause/phrase is determined by the location of that word, clause/phrase in a particular sentence.

TYPE OF GRAMMATICAL NAMES & FUNCTIONS

NOUN CLAUSE/PHRASE: A noun clause/phrase or nominal clause/phrase is a dependent or subordinate clause that does the work of a noun in a sentence. It functions as appositive, the subject or the object of a transitive verb, complement of subject, object and preposition.

Examples:

  1. Segun the policeman arrested the criminal
  2. The criminal arrested by Segun the policeman
  3. Joe Biden won the presidential election
  4. The presidential election is won by Joe Biden
  5. Explanation: from example 1 “Segun the policeman”(which is a noun phrase) functions as the subject of the verb, “arrested”,  and in example 2, Segun the policeman functions as the object of the verb, “arrested”.

    Similarly, in example 3, Joe Biden ”(which is a noun) functions as the subject of the verb, “won”,  and in example 4, Joe Biden functions as the object of the verb, “won”.

    Therefore, in determining the grammatical function of a word, clause/phrase one must take note of the position of that word, clause/phrase in a given sentence.

NOUN CLAUSE/PHRASE GRAMMATICAL NAME & FUNCTIONS

A noun clause/phrase functions as the subject of a verb in a given clause/phrase or sentence.

A noun clause/phrase functions as the object of a verb in a given clause/phrase

 A noun clause/phrase functions as a subject complement

 

How to Solve Grammatical Names and Functions in WAEC & NECO

NOUN CLAUSE/PHRASE & FUNCTIONS
S/N
Sentences from Past Questions
Grammatical Names
Grammatical Functions
Exam Name & Year
2 but when I discovered that I could take care of myself  Noun clause It is the object of the verb “discovered”. WAEC 2019
5 The teacher raised an instant alarm and the neighbours came rushing to the scene. Noun phrase  It is the object of (the verb) “raised” WAEC 2016
8  It took some time before I realized that my role was crucial since the pilfering of such materials was common in all the other classes.  Noun clause  It is the object of the verb ‘realized’ WAEC 2013

How to Solve Grammatical Names and Functions in WAEC & NECO

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE/PHRASE:

Adjectival clause/phrase are dependent clause/phrase that give information about nouns. They allow you to combine two sentences into one by using relative pronouns (​who, whom, whose, where, when, which, that, ​and ​why​) as connectors

Example

1. WHO ==> My cousin ​ who​ missed the lecture borrowed Faruk’s notes to review. (Qualifies the noun “cousin”)
2. WHOM ==> The ABC candidate ​ whom ​many people admire won by a landslide. (Qualifies the noun “candidate”)
3. WHOSE ==> I admire Professor Aboki, ​ whose ​ books were stolen. (Qualifies the noun “Aboki”)
4. THAT ==> The lady ​that​ I met at the bus stop today works at GTBank. (Qualifies the noun “lady”)
5. WHICH ==> My new car, ​ which​ was a gift from my dad after graduation, needs to be serviced. (Qualifies the noun “car”)
6. WHEN ==> July 25, ​ when ​ I left home, was great for me. (Qualifies the noun “July 25”)
7. WHERE ==>  I have always wanted to visit the Stamford Bridge Stadium​ where ​Reece plays football. (Qualifies the noun “stadium”)

Take note that an adjectival clause/phrase is usually close to the noun it describes. Aside from taking note of its markers, this is another method one can easily identify an adjectival clause/phrase.

ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE/PHRASE & FUNCTIONS

 

S/N
Sentences from Past Questions
Grammatical Names
Grammatical Functions
Exam Name & Year
1 Mama chatted heartily with a fellow passenger who was also going to see her son in Lagos Adjectival clause or relative clause  It qualifies the noun “passenger” WAEC 2020
3 Everybody was impressed with the feats which went along with the hilarious drumming

Relative/adjectival clause It qualifies/modifies (the noun) “feats”.

WAEC 2018

10 Left in the lurch, he clung on to a classmate who had longed to work in the city as a petty clerk.  Adjectival/ Relative clause  It qualifies (the noun) “classmate WAEC 2011
11 This is the usual lot of mental patients whose family members refuse to take advantage of orthodox treatment.  Adjectival/Relative clause   It qualifies (the noun) “patients WAEC 2010
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE/PHRASE

An adverb clause is a group of words that is used to change or qualify the meaning of an adjective, a verb, a clause, another adverb, or any other type of word or phrase with the exception of determiners and adjectives that directly modify nouns.

An adverbial clause, sometimes referred to as an adverb clause, is a group of words that, together, functions as an adverb. This means that the clause describes or modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.

There are different types of adverbial clause/phrase: adverbial clause of time, place, manner, reason,  condition, concession, etc

Examples

1. It was raining heavily when I woke up.

“When I woke up” is an adverbial clause of time.

Grammatical function: It modifies the verb phrase, “was raining”.

2. Jimmy died because she was stabbed with a broken bottle.

“Because she was stabbed” is an adverbial clause of reason.

Function: It modifies the verb, “died”.

3. The event occurred where three paths meet.

“Where three paths meet” is an adverbial clause of place.

Function: It modifies the verb, “occurred”.

4. Shade sang as if she was hungry.

“As if she was hungry” is an adverbial clause of manner.

Function: It modifies the verb “sang”.

5. I will never leave you unless you kiss me.

“Unless you kiss me” is an adverbial clause of condition.

Function: It modifies the verb phrase, “will never leave”.

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE/PHRASE & FUNCTION

S/N

Sentences from Past Questions

Grammatical Names

Grammatical Functions

Exam Name & Year

 

4

As he dragged it to the surface, we screamed in sudden terror

Adverbial clause (of time)

It modifies/qualifies (the verb) “screamed”

WAEC 2017

 
 

6

Not long after the governor’s official proclamation, newspaper reporters had a field day speculating on the unprecedented confrontation with Chief. 

 It is an adverbial phrase (of time)

It modifies (the verb) ‘had’. 

WAEC 2015

 

7

 while I was watching a 9 0′ clock television network programme, I saw David being interviewed by a team of reporters.

 It is an adverbial clause (of time).

It modifies (the verb) “saw”

WAEC 2014

 
 
 

9

As soon as the chit-chat ended,  they announced that the Ireti ruling council had decided to confer on him the highest traditional title of the land and that a date had been set for the great event.

Adverbial clause (of time)

It modifies (the verb) ‘announced’.

WAEC 2012

 
English Language WAEC Past Questions
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