# How to Answer Summary Passage in WAEC & NECO

How to Answer Summary Passage in WAEC & NECO.

Answering summary passage has proven to be difficult for students taking West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) examinations, but we are going to explain the techniques on answering summary passage in WAEC & NECO respectively, the easy methods. By the end of this tutorial, we will examine some of the past questions on summary.

To answer a summary passage in English language, you should first carefully read and understand the passage and identify the Topic Sentences of each paragraph. Topic Sentence is a sentence in a paragraph of an essay, report, or article that states the main idea or argument of the paragraph. It gives the reader a clear understanding of what the paragraph is about and what to expect in the following sentences. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph and is an important tool for organizing the content of a text and keeping the reader focused on the main idea.

Then, identify the main idea and key points discussed in the passage. Also, write a brief and concise summary that captures the essence of the passage, including the main idea and key points in simple sentence, compound sentence or complex sentence. It is important to keep in mind that the summary should be your own words and not include any direct quotes from the passage.

In other word, avoid Mindless Lifting, Mindless Lifting in this context is copying verbatim from the passage, that is copying word for word from the passage.

##### Techniques of Answering Summary Passage in WAEC & NECO
1. Quick Scan: Quickly read the passage to get a general understanding of the content.
2. Identify the Topic Sentence: Look for the central theme or message of every paragraph.
3. Highlight key points: Underline or highlight important information in the paragraphs that supports the main idea of the topic sentence.
4. Note-taking: Jot down notes on key points and main idea in a concise manner.
5. Write the summary: Write a brief summary of the paragraph using your own words, including the main idea and key points. Ensure your summary is in simple, compound or complex sentence
6. Check for accuracy: Read the summary to ensure that it accurately represents the main idea and key points of the passage.
7. Refine and edit: Edit the summary for clarity and conciseness by ensuring each sentence use depicts each paragraphs on the passage

Remember to keep your summary short and focused, avoiding unnecessary details or redundant information. Also, be sure to avoid copying any text directly from the passage.

##### How to Answer Summary Passage in WAEC & NECO

English Language 2017 Past Question on Summary

     There are gifts of nature without which human survival on Earth is impossible. Some of these gifts include water, oxygen and the forest. The last is of particular interest. Forests occupy a vast landmass and are found in many parts of the World. They are uncultivated lands thickly covered with trees. Forests have played a significant role in the Survival of humans, Unfortunately, thousands of hectares are destroyed each year due to human activities. It is however, becoming increasingly obvious that if appropriate steps are not taken to curb the wave of forest destruction, the future Survival of humans iş hanging in the balance. This realization is fueling the campaign to preserve this wonderful gift of nature.
Forests are more important to humans than humans are to them. Forest trees serve as a protection against erosion Without the canopy provided by trees, the land will be exposed to all the elements such as strong winds and heavy rainfall The strong winds blow the soil while running water ashes away the top soil with its nutrients, Thus, the most fertile land becomes barren. Wood from trees also serve as an important material in building construction. It is cut and .processed for use in building houses and shelters which provide protection against the inclement weather. With this, the forest shields both humans and the Earth. It is therefore important to ensure the continued availability of this important natural resource. To this end, there is the need for the relevant authorities to enact laws that will mandate tree planting to replace felled ones. Where such laws already exist, efforts must be made to enforce compliance.
The inventiveness of humans has led to the discovery of another use for forest trees. Logs can be cut, chopped into pieces, ground by machines and turned into wood pulp which then goes through some other processes and paper is the end product. We can imagine the great things timber does when we look at the tons of books that are produced and read Worldwide. Thanks to technology, it is now possible to operate a paperless society to some extent. Everyone must therefore continue to make a conscious effort to protect the forest by going paperless. Soft copies of books should be preferred to hard copies. More newspaper publishers now have online outlets where news items are published. Hence, Subscription to these outlets will ensure, a reduction in the demand for paper.
Forests feed the earth, humans and animals that live in them. Through the addition of humus and vegetable matter from dead leaves and droppings of animals, the soil is replenished with mulch, minerals and manure, which are much better than fertilizers. Humans also get food from the nutrient-packed plants and animals of the forest and even use them for medicinal purposes. Thus. governments must discourage the cultivation of forest as farmlands by creating forest reserves. Such reserves should be protected by law to prevent encroachment. This will ensure unfettered growth of trees, and ultimately, the survival of humans. 

(a) In three sentences, one for each, state three benefits derived from forests.

(b). In three sentences, one for each, state three measures to control deforestation.

Solution & Explanation

(a) The benefits derived from the forests are as follow:

(i) Forests protect lands against erosion.
(ii) Forests provide wood used for building shelter.
(iii) Wood got from forests are used in the production of paper.
(iv) Forests provide food for man and animals.

(b) The measures to control deforestation are:

(i) Laws mandating tree planting must be enacted and enforced.
(ii) Everyone must endeavour to go paperless.
(iii) Government must create forest reserves and protect them.

English Language 2015 Past Question on Summary

The announcement in 2011 that the world population had hit the seven billion mark seemed to have taken many people by surprise. Most people wondered how humanity could have grown by a billion within two decades. However, anyone conversant with factors relevant to human growth should understand this phenomenal increase. Let us examine the factors that have prompted the rise in population.

To begin with, think of the health facilities obtainable some centuries earlier compared with now. Man’s knowledge of medical care was appalling some centuries ago. Today, with medical centres within easy reach of most people, and with drugs available to combat virtually all forms of diseases. death rate has been drastically reduced, while life expectancy has risen significantly in most countries. This has caused the great reduction in infant mortality and subsequently increased the number of senior citizens.

Similarly, there is the vital role of education. The spread of education has created a great level of awareness about human welfare and health. Even primary school pupils know the dangers of drinking unwholesome water, living in an unclean environment and ignoring simple rules of hygiene. Besides. education has deflated the various myths and superstitions that pervaded our fathers’ lives.

Nutrition is also a significant contributor. As agricultural practices continue to be aided by serious research efforts, and as tools for farming the land continue to be more available, food supply has been greatly enhanced in an unprecedented way. Today, more food crops can he available on less land area than was the case. Thus, the monster of hunger that used to cause starvation and death is being progressively tamed.

Finally, think of the relative security humanity has enjoyed in the past few decades. In the past centuries, major wars were a common phenomenon. Wars that ravaged Europe and Africa for many decades have almost been forgotten. Although there are still some skirmishes in some parts of the world, these have not been serious enough to bring about a significant change in population.

What then is the net result? Each factor translates to a healthier, safer and longer life. Consequently, our population multiplies at a consistent rate. So, we need not be surprised that the world population is seven billion. Indeed, in the next quarter of a century, another billion may be added, and by the end of this century we may have double the present number. But in this lies another danger: that of gross over-population. If the present trend continues unabated the planet earth may soon become too small to house mankind. For example, arable land may be grossly inadequate to support food production for the very large population. Also, if the population continues to grow unchecked, there will be too many people who may contribute to polluting the environment. Just imagine the amount of waste that would be generated daily by homes, industries and institutions. These waste and debris, if not collected regularly and disposed of properly. may lead to environmental degradation. We should, therefore, watch it.

(a) In four sentences, one for each, summarize the factors that have prompted the rapid increase in world population.

(‘b) In two sentences. one for each, summarize what is likely to follow the continuing rapid population growth.

### Solution & Explanation:

(a)  (i) Medical care has improved greatly

(ii) The spread of education has contributed to the rapid increase in the world population

(iii) improved agricultural practices have made food more available to more people.

(iii) The world is more peaceful today.

(b) (i) Continuing rapid population growth may take Planet Earth too small to accomodation mankind. The Planet Earth may be overpopulated.

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